Article Archive

Volume 1, Issue 1



The Effects of Cadmium Pollution on Female Rat Reproductive System


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2013, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 1-6, Full Text in PDF (392 KB)


Maliheazaman  Monsefi1, Bentolhoda Fereydouni2


1- Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

2- Department of Biology, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.



Cadmium is one of the most toxic heavy metals and an environmental and occupational pollutant that endangers human and animal health. In this research we studied the effects of cadmium chloride on adult Wistar ratís female reproductive system. The rats were divided into 5 groups. The experimental groups were fed with 11, 23, 35 and 50 mg/kg of cadmium chloride daily for 10 days (two estrous cycles). Estrous cycle was examined daily by vaginal smear and animals in estrus phase were selected. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta to assess the blood estradiol and progesterone concentrations. Estradiol was measured by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and progesterone by radioimmunoassay technique. Then, uteruses and ovaries were removed and after weighting were prepared histologically. Results showed that the length of estrous cycle in animals that were treated with 11 mg/kg of cadmium increased significantly. The serum level of progesterone in groups that were treated with 11 and 23 mg/kg of cadmium increased significantly but only the 35 and 50 mg/kg treated groups showed significant decrease compared with the control group. Histological studies did not reveal any pathological changes, however; there were some atretic follicles in 35 and 50 mg/kg treated groups. Cadmium is a common contaminant of natural environment. It can enter to food chain indirectly and affects the female reproductive system as we showed in rats as an experimental model.


Keywords: Ovary; Uterus; Cadmium; Estradiol; Estrous cycle; Progesterone



A Study of the Glycoconjugates Distribution of Umbilical Cord; a Lectin Histochemical Study

Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2013, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 7-11, Full Text in PDF (2200 KB)

Tahereh Talaei-Khozani , Zahra Vojdani, Elham Aliabadi*


Laboratory for stem cell research, Anatomy Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences



Umbilical cord can be considered as a source of stem cells with a wide differentiates capacity. It also supplies the embryos with blood contains oxygen and vital nutritional elements and may change by some abnormalities during embryo development. The study of different aspects of umbilical cord biology is critical for understanding of pathology and the way of its application in a stem cell therapy protocol. The objective of this study was to find the glycoconjugates distribution pattern in various regions of the umbilical cord. To do this, umbilical cords from normal pregnancy were fixed, sectioned and stained with WGA, PNA, Concanavalin A, PHy, DBA, SBA and UEA lectins. The lectins were FITC-conjugated. The slides were counterstained with DAPI and observed by fluorescence microscopy. The data showed amnioblasts were reacted with BSA, ConA, UEA, DBA and WGA and endothelial cells with BSA and UEA. Smooth muscle also took up BSA, UEA and WGA. Mesenchymal cells at the interarterial zone were stained with BSA, ConA and UEA. In conclusion, the staining pattern with lectins was different in various zones of umbilical cord. Any modification of this glycoconjugates distribution may be exerted effects on the proper umbilical cord function or structure.


Keywords: Umbilical cord, Lectin, Glycoconjugates



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