Article Archive









Volume 2, Issue 3




The Expression of β-Catenin in the Epithelial Cells and Stromal Cells of Endometriosis and normal endometrial cells


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 70-76, Full Text in PDF (174 KB)


Kanza MR


Department of obstetrics and gynecology of union hospital tongji medical college, wuhan-hubei province, China



Endometriosis is a common benign disease defined by the presence of the endometrial epithelial and stromal cells outside of the uterine cavity. To date, the etiology, pathogenesis and path-physiology are not fully clarified. The understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis of endometriosis is crucial in novel strategic therapeutic approaches for the endometriosis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the expression pattern, the intensity and the sub localization of β-catenin in both ectopic and eutopic endometrial cells during the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. A total number of 41 tissue samples were included in this study, where endometriotic tissue samples (n=26and normal endometrial tissue samples (n=15) were investigated using immunohistochemistryIHCmethod to detect the expression patterns of β-catenin. While, the Immunoperoxidase staining technique and semi-quantitative scoring system were used to quantify the results and the comparisons between endometriotic tissues and normal endometrial tissues were also performed. Compared with normal endometrial tissues, our study found a decreased β-catenin expression in endometriotic tissues.  Both, Endometriotic tissues of the ovary from non-pregnant and the peritoneum showed a statistically significant reduced- β-catenin expression (P <0.001) when compared with the normal endometrial cell (P < 0. 05). Besides the Different expression modes of β-catenin in ectopic and eutopic endometrial cells was also been detected. In conclusion the down-expression of β-catenin may have an essential role in the invasion, proliferation and differentiation of endometriosis. The alteration of expression of β-catenin may take part in the pathogenesis of endometriosis.


Keywords: β-Catenin, Endometriosis, Normal endometrial cells, Epithelial cells, Stromal cells


FKBP51 and FKBP52 as potential biomarkers for predicting endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation in assisted reproductive technologies


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 77-81, Full Text in PDF (72 KB)


Alaee S1, Ghaffari Novin M2,3, Yeganeh F4


1. Department of Reproductive Biology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2. Department of Biology and Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

3. Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center (IRHRC), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

4. Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



One of the most important and limiting factors in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) is repeated implantation failure (RIF). In the process of embryo implantation, appropriate function of the progesterone hormone through its receptors is critical for establishment of a receptive endometrium. FKBP51 and FKBP52 are two co-chaperones of progesterone receptors that participate in the progesterone signaling pathway and endometrial receptivity. These 51 and 52 KD proteins increase and decrease the affinity of progesterone hormone receptors to their ligand, respectively. The endometrial tissue of RIF patients might have different patterns of FKBP51 and FKBP52 gene expression. These molecules can easily be detected and quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. Assessment of these molecules could be a valuable method for evaluation of endometrial receptivity and prediction of the implantation and pregnancy outcome before beginning a treatment cycle for RIF patients in ART procedures. 


Keywords: ART, Repeated implantation failure, Progesterone, FKBP51, FKBP52


Nonylphenol exposure disrupts the fertility efficiency in adult male rats


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 82-87, Full Text in PDF (768 KB)


U. Kanchana ganga1, B. Kishori1, P. Sreenivasula Reddy2


1. Department of Biotechnology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visva Vidyalayam, Tirupati, A.P., India

2. Department of Zoology, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, A.P., India



    The  present  research  was  aimed  to  investigate  the  effects  of  low  doses  of  nonylphenol  on  male  reproductive performance in adult rats. Thirty two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (weighing 160 ± 10 g in the beginning of the experiment). First group served as control and were injected with only DMSO, remaining second, third and fourth groups were administered with nonylphenol of 1, 10, 100 µg/kg Bw through intr aperitonial injections for 55 days. To observe the fertility, control and experimental males were cohabited with sexually mature normal  females.  A significant  (p<0.05)  decrease   was observed  in the body  weight  gain of  experimental males. Significant (p<0.05) changes were not observed in the mating index. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in fertility  rate,  measured  by  counting  live  fetuses  in  the  uterus  of  normal  females  mated  with  males  exposed  to nonylphenol. Four female rats were sacrificed on 8thday of pregnancy, ovaries were examined for the numbers of corpora lutea. Remaining four  female rats were sacrificed on 18thday of pregnancy and uteri were dissected and examined for determination of numbers of implantations, dead and live fetuses, and resorptions. Females mated with 100 µg/kg Bw nonylphenol exposed males showed resor ptions and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in number of live fetuses per rat. The present results revealed significant decrease in fertilization capacity of adult male rats exposed to nonylphenol. 


Keywords: Xenoestrogens, Nonylphenol, Fertility, Implantation loss, Rat


Serum gonadotropin and prolactin levels in females with primary infertility and thyroid dysfunction in North Indian population


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages 88-91, Full Text in PDF (61 KB)


A. Yadav1, M. Arora2, V. Saini2, J. Bhattacharjee3, A. Jain3


1. Department of Biochemistry, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India

2. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India

3. Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India 



Adequate  levels  of  circulating  thyroid  hormones  are of  primary  importance  for  normal  reproductive  function. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism have no symptoms or very few symptoms related to thyroid disease, but may have adverse outcome on fertility but are not referred to infertility clinics. Galactorrhea and hyperprolactinemia patients may have primary hypothyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate if thyroid dysfunctionleads to any alteration in serum gonadotropin and prolactin levels contributing towards infertility.  This case control study was performed in  256  females in a tertiary care hospital.Serum TSH, fT4 and fT3, LH, FSH and prolactin levels were assayed using fully automated chemiluminescent immunoassay Analyzer Access 2 by Beckman and Coulter (USA). Serum LH, FSH levels were significantly low and serum prolactin levels were significantly high in patients with infertility  and  hypothyroidism.  Serum  LH,  FSH  levels  were  significantly  high  in  infertile  females  with hyperthyroidism whereas serum prolactin levels werelow but not significantly different in these patients. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on fertility in females. Fertility improves when euthyroidism is restored. It has been suggested that normal gonadotropin and thyroid function tests are necessary to achieve maximum fertilization rate and blastocyst development. Thyrotoxicosis in womenhas been linked with reduced fertility but the mechanism for the same has not been elucidated clearly. We suggest screening of thyroid hormone in all the females with infertility.


Keywords: Gonadotropin, Prolactin, Primary infertility, Thyroid dysfunction


Every month becomes a funeral when they menstruate: African women’s beliefs about couple infertility


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2014, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pages92-100, Full Text in PDF (113 KB)


F. Naab


Department of Maternal and Child Health ,College of Health Sciences, School of Nursing ,University of Ghana



The experience of infertility in Africa is culturally constructed. However, the influence of these cultural beliefs about infertility on the experience of infertility in Africa is yet to receive scientific exploration. The purpose of this study was to explore beliefs about couple infertility among women from different African cultures. Fifteen African women volunteers from eight African countries were recruited from an African Women Association in a northern state of the United States of America for this qualitative study.  Individual in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted between June and September, 2008. Each interview lasted 30 to 45 minutes. Questions asked included beliefs about couple infertility in their respective cultures. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim.  Data were content-analyzed and Nvivo 8 was used to manage and organize the data. Cultural expectation emerged as a main theme, within which originated three areas of beliefs; community attitudes, family influences, couples’ reactions to infertility and coping strategies. The findings showed that beliefs about couple infertility in the eight African countries were similar. The findings suggested a strong belief that culturally, African men do not become infertile. As a result, women are blamed for couple infertility. The findings further showed that women with couple infertility are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS. It is important to include sexual health counseling in the management of couples with infertility in Africa.


Keywords: Beliefs, Infertility, Couple infertility, African Women


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