J. Infertil. Reprod. Biol.

Volume 3, Issue 1, 2015


Effect of isolated chromatographic fractions of Citrus medica seeds: In vivo study on anti-implantation and estrogenic activity in albino rats


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 136-144, | Full Text in PDF (782 KB)


Sharangouda J. Patil1*, Venkatesh S2, Vishwanatha T3, Saraswati B. Patil4


1. Department of Zoology,Government First Grade Degree College, K. R. Puram, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

2. Department of Biology, Vishwa Jyothi P.U. College, Siraguppa, Bellary, Karnataka, India

3. Department of Microbiology, Maharaniís Science College for Women, Bangalore, Karnataka, India

4. Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in Zoology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, Karnataka, India




The therapeutic effect of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases is based on the presence of chemical constituents in the plants. The present investigation is aimed to justify the active principle of Citrus medica seeds by isolating chromatographic fractions of petroleum ether extract and studied for anti-implantation, pregnancy interruption and estrogenic activities in albino rats. Two fractions were obtained from thin layer chromatography (TLC) and subjected for testing to know their anti-implantation, pregnancy interruption and estrogenic activities in in vitro. Each isolated fraction (I & II) at the dose level of 50mg and 100mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 7 days in 5 groups (from day 1 to 7 of pregnancy) to pregnant rats for anti-implantation, pregnancy interruption on day 10. Also non-pregnant rats in 6 groups for estrogenic activity. Among the two isolated TLC fractions, fraction II at 50 and 100mg/kg body weight is highly significantly effective in reducing mean number of implants and exhibited 71.65 & 80.17 percent inhibition of implantation respectively. Estrogenic activity of fraction II at the dose level of 100mg/kg body weight exhibited highly significant increase in the wet weight of uterus and adrenals diameter of uterus, thickness of myometrium & endometrium and epithelial cell height. Vaginal cornification and premature opening of vagina in 6 out of 6 rats exhibited positive result and almost similar to Ethinyl estradiol administration. Furthermore, histological changes of uterus and adrenals were support the anti-implantation and estrogenic study. Hence, the results concluded that estrogenic nature of the fraction II, at 100mg/kg body weight level, possessing active constituents present in petroleum ether extract and have been proved to have significant antifertility activity in Citrus medica seeds.


Keywords: Citrus medica, Anti-implantation, Pregnancy, Estrogenic, Antifertility, Rats



Effect of environmental factors on ovarian reserve of women living in Aral Sea area


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 145-149, |Full Text in PDF (78 KB)


Aru Balmagambetova1, Gulmira Zhurabekova1, Ibrahim A Abdelazim2*,Sapargali Rakhmanov1


 1. Department of Normal and Topographical Anatomy, Marat Ospanov, West Kazakhstan State Medical University, Kazakhstan

2. Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and Ahmadi Hospital, Kuwait Oil Company (KOC), Kuwait




Permanent environmental pollution by wastes arising from industries can lead to negative effects on reproductive organs. Normal reproductive function of women depends on the functional capacity of ovaries. This study was designed to detect possible environmental effect on ovarian reserve of women living in Aral Sea area. 160 women in their reproductive age were studied; 80 women from Kuwait in group I and 80 women from Shalkar, Kazakhstan in group II. Women included in this study were evaluated using trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVS) to detect Antral Follicle Count (AFC) as well as Basal Ovarian Volume (BOV). AFC and BOV were compared in both study groups. In this study, there was significant difference between group I and group II regarding; AFC and BOV, which means reduced ovarian reserve as indicated by AFC and BOV of women living in Aral Sea area (Kazakhstan) compared with Kuwaiti women of same age group. This study suggests possible environmental effect on ovarian reserve of women living in Aral Sea area (Kazakhstan). This study, also, concluded that, AFC and BOV is a simple, rapid, non-invasive method for assessment of ovarian reserve.


 Keywords: Environmental factors, Ovarian reserve, Aral sea area



The effects of seasons on the testicular parameters and epididymal sperm of the Iranian river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 150-154, |Full Text in PDF (1.26 MB)


Saeed Moosa-Ali1, Farid Barati1*, Saleh Esmaeilzadeh2, Dariush Gharibi2, Mahmood Khaksary Mahabady3


1. Department of Clinical Science, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

2. Department of pathobiological sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

3. Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran



The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different seasons on the morphometric testicular parameters and the respective epididymal sperm parameters. Total numbers of 104 scrota of pubertal buffalo bull (24-48 months) include their contents were provided from the local slaughterhouse. Scrotal circumference was measured on its place before dissection. Morphological parameters of testis and epididymis and epididymal sperm were analyzed. The results showed the highest scrotal circumference and testicular weight as well as retrieved sperm concentrations in spring. However, sperm tail and midpiece abnormalities were highest and the sperm progressive motility was the lowest during spring. During summer the lowest testicular weight and retrieved sperm concentration as well as low sperm progressive motility was considered. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirm direct influence of different seasons on the epididymal sperm and the testicular parameters of the Iranian river buffalo bull.


Keywords: Season, Iranian river buffalo, Epididyme, Sperm, Testicular morphometry



Spinal cord histomorphometric alterations in the male and female diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 155-159, | Full Text in PDF (218 KB)


Hooman Hematian


Department of Veterinary sciences, Yasooj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yasooj, Iran



This study was conducted to evaluate the effects ofdiabetes on spinal cord structure in male and female rats and to comparethe alterations of the spinal cord in both genders.Twenty adult female and the same number of male Sprague Dawley rats were divided in fourgroups, aseach groupcontained 5 males and 5 females. Diabetes was induced in 3 groups by alloxan agent. All of the animals were kept at the same condition in animal house but each group was kept for different periods of time. Afterexperiment, animals were anaesthetized and scarified. Then the spinalcordwascollectedfromallrats.Varioushistologicalparametersweredeterminedusinghistological techniques. Results revealed that the diameters andthe cell numbers of the gray matter and the whitematter have decreasedinalltestgroups;howeverthesealterationshavebeengreaterandmoresignificantinthemalesthan females. Diabetes exhibit deleterious effects on male and female spinal cords, although these effects are more serious

in males.


Keywords: Diabetes, Rat, Gender, Alloxan, Spinal cord



Clinical diagnosis and management of Swyer syndromeexhibiting different genetic variants: Current review of the literature


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 1, Pages 160-164, | Full Text in PDF (66 KB)


Serkan Kahyaoglu


Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Zekai Tahir Burak Womenís Health Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey


Allgeneticalcausesofpuregonadaldygenesis,Swyersyndrome,havenotbeendiscoveredyet.Clinical and molecularstudiesareneededtoidentifynovelgeneticalterationsthatresultinthistypeofsexualdifferentiation disorder. Swyer syndrome is a rare form of gonadal dysgenesis syndromes characterized with a 46, XY karyotype. A non-functional Y chromosome caused by various genetic mutations results in a deficient testis determining pathway andcessationofAMHandandrogensecretion.Asaresult,normallydevelopedmullerianstructures(uppertwo thirds of vagina, cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes) stand by nonmasculinized internal and external genitalia. Several genes are involved in the process of sex differentiation, including SRY, RSPO1, SOX9, NR5A1, WT1, NR0B1 and WNT4.Amonggeneticmutations resultingwitha deficienttestisdeterminingpathway,for10-15%ofpatients a mutation that inactivates the SRY gene located on the long arm of Y chromosome is the ethiological factor. Defect in a different testis determining factor (TDF) such asthe SF-1 gene is proposed as another etiological factor resulting with Swyer syndrome. The absence of known mutationsin the SRY gene indicates that molecular defects could be present in the untranslated regulatory regions of the SRY gene or presence of other deficient gene(s)could explain the disorder. A phenotypically female patient presenting with primary amenorrhea, delayed puberty, normal internal genitaliaexceptstreakgonadsandhypergonadotropichyponadismshouldbeevaluatedbyadvancedgenetic investigations to discover novel mutations for puregonadal dysgenesis.


Keywords: Swyersyndrome,Amenorrhea,Gonadoblastoma,Streak gonad,Disordersofsexdevelopment,Y chromosome







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