J. Infertil. Reprod. Biol.

Volume 3, Issue 3, 2015


Investigation of plasma cytokine levels and endometrial tissue leukocytes in recurrent pregnancy loss


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 192-198, | Full Text in PDF (99 KB)


Mehmet Simsek1, Zehra Sema Ozkan1*, Derya Deveci2, Fulya Ilhan3, Nusret Akpolat4

1. Firat University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Elazig, Turkey

2. Firat University School of Health Services, Elazig, Turkey

3. Firat University School of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Elazig, Turkey

4. Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Malatya, Turkey




Women usually desire to have wider birth intervals, hence adopt family planning methods such as oral pills, Intrauterine device, Injections, barrier methods, sterilization etc. which are most commonly practiced in the country. Among these tubectomy is one of the safest permanent operative procedure; complications are rare and occur in less than 1% of all female sterilization operations. Tubectomy gives almost absolute protection against unwanted childbirths as compared with temporary methods. The objective of this study was to find out the choice for the acceptance of tubectomy as permanent method of contraception.This study was carried out in the Gynaec OPD of NIUM Hospital during the year of 2014-2015. Total 600 women were enrolled in the study and detailed history was obtained regarding the issues and type of family planning method adopted. The collected data was recorded and analyzed. Out of 600 women 344 (57.33%) women adopted temporary methods, whereas 256(42.66%) adopted permanent sterilization (tubectomy). Among temporary methods 137(22.83%) were on OCP, 70 (11.66%) were on IUCD, 62 (10.33%) were on barrier methods and 52 (8.66%) were not used any methods, whereas 256 (42.66%) had tubectomy. Most of the women i.e. 108 (42.18%) had tubectomy operation after two children and least women i.e. 50 (19.53%) had tubectomy operation after five children. It was observed in Bangalore city that the most of women accepted tubectomy operation especially after two or three children. It may be due to sensitivity of women towards financial status, better education or carrier of their children or better health.


Keywords: Recurrent pregnancy loss, Natural killer, Macrophage, Endometrial leukocytes, Cytokines


Comparisonof ovarian response between PCOS and Non-PCOS patients undergoing ICSI with antagonist protocol


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 199-207, | Full Text in PDF (127 KB)


Krishnapillai Jayakrishnan1*, Divya Nambiar1, Jesin Leo Fency1


1. KJK Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India




Antagonists have been shown to be better than agonists in general and in the PCOS infertility with lower rate of OHSS.This study is a retrospective observational study and patient record review of PCOS and Non-PCOS groups of patients who entered ART over a duration of 3 years. On comparison of ovarian response in both groups, the mean number of oocytes obtained was more in the PCOS group but the number of mature oocytes obtained was significantly less. A higher fertilization rate and cleavage rate was observed in the non- PCOS patients i.e. 82.3% and 73.2% respectively versus 71% and 58.7% in the PCOS group which was statistically significant. There were no patients with OHSS in the non- PCOS group, whereas in the PCOS group we had 10 patients with mild OHSS, 4 (6%) patients with moderate OHSS and only 1 (1%) patient with severe OHSS.In conclusion the pregnancy rate was comparable in patients with PCOS undergoing GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation compared with non-PCOS patients in whom the same controlled ovarian stimulation was used. Of importance is the fact that there was only one case of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in the PCOS group, making the use of the GnRH antagonist an attractive option in this high-risk group of patients.


Keywords: GnRH antagonist, PCOS, Ovarian response, Cleavage rate, OHSS


Assisted conception, endometrial tuberculosis with secondary infertility, treatment and subsequent live birth. A case report


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 208-212, | Full Text in PDF (108 KB)



Aamir Javed1*, Ashwini L.S1, Debashree Ganguly2, Farnaz Mozafari3, Murugan.S4, Sneh Sagar5


1. Base Fertility Medical Science Pvt Ltd. MIG 1/14, KHB Colony, Bangalore, India

2. Jahar Infertility Research Institute, VIP Park, Deshbandhunagar, Baguiati, Kolkata, India

3. R&D in Life Sciences Biotechnology Research Lab, DSI, KS Layout Bangalore, India

4. Institute of Biomedical Research, # 23/6, Shivaji Street, 1st Floor, T. Nagar, Chennai, India

5. Genelon Institute of Life Sciences Pvt. Ltd., No-1160, Yelanka Old Town Bangalore, India



Female genital tuberculosis is a latent cause of infertility in our milieu and is barely looked for as part of usual evaluation of infertility. With a radical incidence of Tuberculosis in the face of the developing countries, it is important to always have genital tuberculosis in mind particularly when no erstwhile reason is found for the infertility. Woman genital tuberculosis is a significant cause of secondary infertility in developing countries or where tuberculosis is endemic. In the current study we present a case in which endometrial tuberculosis was a cause of secondary infertility of almost 10 long years. From February 2013 to October 2013, we performed, laparoscopy, trans- vaginal Study, pelvic scan for infertile patient. The patient had secondary infertility; therefore, she underwent the process of the endometrial biopsy and hysteroscopy. The laparoscopic discovery confirmed normal ovaries and uterus in the patient; evenough the fallopian tube of the patient was normal. Hysteroscopy results concluded that the endometrial layer was atrophied in the patient, and biopsy results revealed the presence of acid-fast bacilli using Zeihl-Neelsen stain further confirmation by the ABIô Rt-PCR. We concluded that patients with endometrial tuberculosis possibly have no clear filed record of tuberculosis or may have proof evidence of tuberculosis grazes somewhere else in the body.Histopathological confirmation from the biopsies of pre-menstrual endometrial tissue or expression of tubercle bacilli in cultures of endometrial curetting or menstrual blood is required to reach a decisive diagnosis of the disease or indications. When our patients were treated with antituberculosis treatment (ethambutol 800 mg + isoniazid 300 mg + pyrazinamide 750 mg + rifampicin 450 mg.) for 6 months they regained with the endometrial tuberculosis, and achieve pregnancy via assisted conception. Gynaecologists in developing countries must consider genital tuberculosis as an important cause of secondary infertility.


Keywords: Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Anti-TB therapy, Assisted reproduction



Impact of Smoking on Spermís DNA and Assisted Reproductive Techniques Outcome


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 213-219, | Full Text in PDF (84 KB)


Mohamed Faris1, Taimour Khalifa2, Sayed Bakry3*††††††



1. Faris Medical Center for Infertility and Human Reproduction, Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt

2. Department of Dermatology and Venereology, School of Medicine, Al Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt

3. Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Embryology, Zoology Department, School of Science, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt




The effect of smoking on Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) results in male was considered as a deleterious factor in pregnancy outcome among IVF patients.Male smoking is associated with lower success rate in ICSI and IVF couples. Smoking significantly decreased live birth rates and has a deleterious effect on spermís DNA. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of male cigarettes smoking on the outcome of ICSI and IMSI, referring to clinical pregnancy, implantation and miscarriage rate. Therefore a total of 255 couples were diagnosed with severe oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia, 3 years of primary infertility, the woman aged 30 years or younger and an undetected female factor were randomized to IVF micro insemination treatments. Males were classified according to smoking into two major groups: group 1 (109) smokers and group 2 (146) non-smokers. The smoker group including (44 male) admitted for ICSI procedures and (65 male) admitted for IMSI procedure. While, non-smoker group included (76 male) and (70 male) were admitted for ICSI and IMSI respectively. A comparison between the two groups was based in terms of pregnancy, miscarriage and implantation rates. Student t-test was adopted to assess the significant differences between the two groups. The results of our study showed no significant difference in clinical pregnancy, implantation and miscarriage rate between smoker and non-smokers men. While, the difference was high significance in clinical pregnancy and implantation in IMSI group when compared to ICSI group and lowest significance difference was recorded in miscarriage rate in IMSI group when compared to ICSI group. In conclusion this study shaded more light on the effect of cigarettes smoking on male fertility and the cutting edge procedures used to solve the issue of frequent ICSI failure in the infertile couples. It also showed that clinical pregnancy and implantation rates are increased and miscarriage rate decreased in non- smoker couples male when IMSI procedure was used for them.


Keywords: Male infertility, Sperm DNA, Cigarettes smoking, IMSI, ICSI



Effect of Age at Marriage on Inter Pregnancy Spacing- An Observational Study


Journal of Infertility and reproductive Biology, 2015, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 220-225, | Full Text in PDF (99 KB)


Tabassum.Kotagasti1,2*, Nishat Rias1


1. Reader, Department of Amraze Niswan wa Qabalat (OBG), National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bangalore, India

2. PG Scholar, Dept of OBG, NIUM, Bílore



Birth Spacing or interval between births is significantly influenced by social and biological factors like age, education, race, age at marriage, parity, child mortality, gender composition etc.This paper illustrates the influences of age at marriage on inter pregnancy space. The objective of this Observational study was to find out the birth-spacing pattern in respect of age at marriage. The study was carried out in the Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Institute of Unani Medicine and Hospital during the year of 2014 to observe the influence of age of mother on spacing of children. This study consisted of 130 women of parity three.A detailed history was taken regarding the age, age at marriage, parity and spacing and data was recorded. It was observed that Early married had longer birth interval between marriages and first birth, 1st to 2nd and 2nd to 3rd i.e. 1.96, 2.09 and 2.76 respectively, whereas women with average age at marriage had shorter interval i.e.1.83, 1.75 and 1.87 years respectively. In present study a complex relationship between age at marriage and inter pregnancy interval was found as both early and average age at marriage to some extent affects the spacing of children.


Keywords: Age at marriage, Early and average, Influence, Parity, Spacing



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