J. Infertil. Reprod. Biol.
Volume 8, Issue 3, 2020
Adverse Effects of some of the Most Widely used Metal Nanoparticles on the Reproductive System
Shahla Abdollahii1, Marzieh Khodadadi2, Marjan Safari1, Faezeh Jadidi3, Amir Mohammad Akbari Javar4, Nasrin Beheshtkhoo5*, Mohammad Amin Jadidi Kouhbanani5*
1Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Payame Noor, University (PNU), P.O. Box, 19395-3697, Tehran, Iran
3Student Research Committee, Zarand School of nursing, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
4Department of Mathematics, faculty of Mathematics, Farhangian University, Kerman, Iran
5Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Nanotechnology, which allows the manipulation of molecular dimensions, is used in many aspects of human life, from industrial to medical and therapeutic aspects. Features of nanoparticles and their unique capabilities have attracted a lot of attention. Among nanotechnology structures, metal nanoparticles have been widely used in many aspects of industry and medicine. The unique properties of these nanoparticles make possible to produce and expand them on a large scale, thus making the possibility of exposure to these nanoparticles more likely. Nanotechnology and nanoparticles like a double-edged sword despite its many benefits, it also has a number of disadvantages. One of the most important of these disadvantages is their toxicity. This toxicity may have adverse effects on the environment and humans. One of the most important adverse effects of nanoparticles is adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this paper, the adverse effects of some of the most widely used metal nanoparticles on the reproductive system are described. These adverse effects can be on: sexual behaviors, sexual organs, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm shape, sperm maturity, ovarian and follicle maturation, their fertility rate and also the level of sex hormones in men and women. The adverse effects of these nanoparticles and their toxicity on a variety of tissues and organs lead us to use safer nanoparticles.
Keywords: Nanotechnology, Metal nanoparticles, Toxicity, Reproductive system
Prediction of Ovarian Response with Ovarian Response Prediction Index (Orpi) during Controlled Ovarian Stimulation in IVF
Mannem Haritha. M1, Agarwal Sonal. A2, Nayak Chaitra3, Pragnesh Gautham4, Kamini A Rao.5
1MBBS, MS (OBG), FMAS, FRM (REP MED) Infertility Specialist, Department of reproductive medicine, Milann Fertility Centre, Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, Bengaluru, India
2MBBS,MS (OBG),FMAS,MNAMS,DNB,FNB(RM) Infertility Specialist, Department of reproductive Medicine, Milann Fertility Centre, Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, Bengaluru, India
3MBBS, MS (OBG), FNB (RM) Infertility Specialist, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Milann Fertility Centre, Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, Bengaluru, India
4MBBS, MD, DNB, Chief Operating Officer, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Milann Fertility Centre, Bangalore Assisted conception Centre, Bengaluru, India
5DGO, Dch, FICOG, FRCOG, PGDMLE, FNAMS, Medical Director, Department of Reproductive Medicine, Milann Fertility Centre, Bangalore Assisted Conception Centre, Bengaluru, India
(Background): To evaluate ORPI as an index to predict the response to ovarian stimulation. (Methods): It is an observational prospective study of 734 patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation during period of 1.5 years (July 2017 to December 2018) .Inclusion and exclusion criteria were taken into consideration when patients were recruited. ORPI is calculated by multiplying AMH level (ng/ml) and AFC (n) and the result is divided by age (years) of the patient. The primary outcome measured was number of MII oocytes and secondary outcome was total number of oocytes retrieved. (Results): Positive correlation of ORPI with MII oocytes and total number of oocytes is seen. Regarding the probability of collecting ≥4 oocytes under the ROC curve, the AUC for ORPI is 0.68 (95%CI 0.65-0.72) with sensitivity of 78.4 and specificity of 51.4 for a cut off of >0.44. For collecting ≥ 15 oocytes ROC curve had an AUC of 0.72 with sensitivity of 66.7 and specificity of 73.4 for a cut off of >1.28. ROC curve for the probability of collecting ≥4 MII oocytes depicted an AUC of 0.67 with cut off of >0.77. (Conclusion): The results of our study concluded that in a patient undergoing IVF treatment, ORPI has a poor ability to predict retrieval of ≥4 oocytes or ≥ 4 MII and fair ability for hyper response with ≥15 oocytes. ORPI can serve as a counselling tool for predicting ovarian response.
Keywords: Antral follicle count, Anti-Mullerianhormone, Controlled ovarian stimulation
Pedigree Analysis: An Important Diagnostic Tool for Calculating the Risk Factor in Infertile Men of Indian Population
Gresh Chander1, Susan Manohar2, Alibha Rawat1, N. Ganesh1*
1Department of Research Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Idgah Hills Bhopal (India)
2Govt Mahatma Gandhi Memorial College Itarsi M.P (India)
The problem of male infertility is widespread in the modern world and it is of utmost importance to look for risk factors and its early diagnosis so that corrective measures can be taken early on. The pedigree chart analysis is a very important tool in this regard which gives us the pictorial representation of the disease within the family. The research work was conducted in the Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital, and Research Center. Three-generation medical history of healthy control and infertile subjects were taken by preparing a pedigree chart in the form of pictorial representation. Physical examination was done for the Anthropometrical studies and other sexual inconvenience of the enrolled subjects. In the subjects enrolled for study the prevalence of infertility was found to be significantly high in families having a history of infertility and other habits in their generation line.
Keywords: Anogenital distance, Abortions, Infertility, Pedigree, Sperm Morphology
Sperm Cryopreservation: Principles and Biology
Yashaswi Sharma, Mona Sharma*
Department of Reproductive Biology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
Cryopreservation is a widely used method to preserve sperm prior to any cytotoxic therapy or testicular surgical intervention to be used later for assisted conception. Despite of multiple modifications in cryopreservation protocols, the yield of post-thaw good quality sperm has not been improved much. There is little data regarding factors affecting cryopreservation techniques and outcomes. Present review focuses on the basic biology of cryopreservation, its current protocols and effects on sperm proteomic and epigenomic modifications.
Keywords: Cryopreservation, Spermatozoa, Fertility preservation, Cryoprotective agents, Cryobiology
Association of Copper-to Zinc Ratio with Sperm Concentration among Males Investigated for Infertility
Mathias Abiodun Emokpae* and Muyiwa Adeleye Moronkeji
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
The importance of copper and zinc in the fertility potential of males are well understood. The close relationship and the antagonistic interactions between copper and zinc requires further investigation especially because of conflicting reports in literature on the association of the trace elements with sperm quantity and quality. This study evaluates seminal plasma copper and zinc concentrations, copper-to-zinc ratio and their associations with sperm concentration in infertile males. This is a cross-sectional study of 400 males investigated for infertility and 100 male control subjects. Seminal plasma copper and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique (Buck Scientific Model VGP-210, Germany). The subjects were grouped based on sperm count; normozoospermia(>15 x 106cells/mL), oligozoospermia (<15x106cells/mL) and azoospermia (no sperm cell). The levels of copper, zinc and Cu/Zn ratio were compared using unpaired Students-t-test and analysis of variance while Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between measured variables and sperm count. Seminal plasma zinc was significantly lower (p<0.001) while copper and Cu/Zn ratio were significantly higher (p<0.001) in infertile than fertile males. The Cu/Zn ratio was significantly higher (p<0.001) among infertile males than controls. Seminal plasma levels of copper and Cu/Zn ratio increased with decreasing concentrations of sperm cells while zinc levels increase with increasing concentration of sperm cells. Copper-to-zinc ratio correlated with sperm concentration in infertile males. The interaction between copper and zinc may be routinely considered in the clinical evaluation of the infertile men.
Keywords: Copper, Zinc, Sperm concentration, Male infertility
Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology
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