Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages: 1-4  
Nanoparticles as a Promising Innovative Treatment  
Towards Infertility  
Milad Abbasi*  
Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.  
Received: 12/01/2017  
Accepted: 05/02/2017  
Published: 20/03/2017  
Abstract  
Infertility is a disease of the reproductive system in which clinical pregnancy does not occur after twelve months or more of regular  
unprotected intercourse. Epidemiologically, within one year, approximately 25% of marriages do not get pregnant and suffer from this  
complication. Factors that mostly give rise to male infertility include testicular dysfunction, immune defence reaction, seminal tract  
disabilities are account for about 40 percent of cases. About 50% of infertility is related to female factors including ovulatory factor  
disorders, endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, anomalies of mucus, and tubal disease. The other ten percent  
include unknown factors. The unique properties of nanoparticles make them a reliable tool to help married people achieve pregnancy  
and better prevent infertility disabilities as a clinical treatment. This paper briefly discusses the causes associated with infertility and  
innovative forms of treatment by the usage of nanoparticles.  
Keywords: Nanoparticles, Infertility, Treatment  
Introduction1  
improved. The emergence of nanoscience has revolutionized  
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various fields of science, especially medicine (4, 5).  
Nanoparticles have been shown to have a wide range of  
applications in tissue engineering, gene delivery, drug delivery,  
biological labels (like fluorescent and dyes), bio-detection of  
pathogens, proteins tracing, tumor destruction (cancer therapy),  
analyze of the DNA structure, MRI as contrast agents,  
pharmacological studies, and purification and separation of  
cells and biological molecules (6). The unique properties of  
nanoparticles make them a reliable tool to help married people  
achieve pregnancy and better prevent infertility disabilities as a  
clinical treatment. As shown in Fig.1, the durability and  
enormous load-carrying capability of nanoparticles allow the  
attachment and selective distribution of broad cargo amounts.  
According to the World Health Organization (WHO),  
infertility is a disease of the reproductive system in which  
clinical pregnancy does not occur after twelve months or more  
of regular unprotected intercourse. Epidemiologically, within  
one year, approximately 25% of marriages do not get pregnant  
and suffer from this complication. Although men are involved  
in about half of the causes of infertility, both men and women  
can cause infertility (1). Nearly 20% of infertile couples are  
affected by factors such as follicular rupture, ovulatory factor  
disorders, and mutations. Disorders of the female genitalia,  
including abnormal uterine cavities, pelvic adhesions, and tubal  
integrity, account for about 30 percent of cases. Decreased  
sperm motility and sperm count and their displacement in the  
cervical mucosa, which causes the ovum not to fertilize,  
account for about 10% of infertility cases. About 30 percent of  
infertility is due to factors related to semen quality, such as  
genital infection, varicocele, surgery, trauma, genetic  
disorders, and toxins. The other ten percent include unknown  
factors (2). Psychological studies have shown that infertile  
women are more anxious, nervous, and dependent than fertile  
women, and experience fears about reproduction and  
challenges to femininity (3). Therefore, solving infertility  
problems both in married life and in terms of social dimension  
has a significant effect on reducing mental and emotional  
disorders caused by infertility and increasing life expectancy.  
As a result, it is essential to have a promising strategy that can  
eliminate the problems caused by infertility.  
2 Causes of infertility  
A multicenter study conducted by the WHO successfully  
shows that, in 20 percent of patients, the major problem was  
related to men. To obtain fertility, a male needs appropriate  
spermatogenesis, sufficient epididymal development and  
sperm production, healthy sperm transportation, and effective  
operation of the gland along with correctly paced copulation.  
Factors that mostly give rise to male infertility include  
testicular dysfunction, immune defence reaction, seminal tract  
disabilities, psychopathy, early-stage cancer treatment  
medications like chemotherapy agents and other medications  
like anabolic steroids and testosterone supplementation,  
antifungals such as some antihypertensive and ketoconazole  
drugs and also hypothalamic-pituitary disorders (Figure 2) (7,  
8). The latest current statistics demonstrate that 12 percent or  
about 7.3 million American females within the ages of 15 and  
44 experience fertility disorders and even a failure to conceive  
or carry out childbirth.  
Nanotechnology is an attractive multidisciplinary science  
that generally deals with the control of unique size-dependent  
properties in the range of one to 100 nanometers. The nanoscale  
of materials gives them unparalleled freedom to control and  
modify the behavior of matter. With intelligent material  
control, fundamental features such as solubility, intelligent  
release, circulatory protection properties, biocompatibility, and  
a wide range of important features can be controlled and  
Corresponding author: Milad Abbasi, Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Sciences and  
Technologies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. E-maill: miladab@yahoo.com.  
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Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 2017, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages: 1-4  
Figure 1: The durability of nanoparticles. Nanostructures are extremely flexible systems with dynamic chemical and physical characteristics  
Figure 2: Male infertility factors  
A variety of well-determined health behaviors have been  
recognized that directly cause females towards infertility, such  
as postponed parturition, early puberty, a background of sexual  
transmission of pathogenesis, and pelvic inflammation-related  
disorders. Relevant variables including age changes,  
overweight, active smoking, and the experience of ectopic  
pregnancy have been the most commonly correlated infertility  
causes in females (9). Ovulatory disturbances, endometriosis,  
polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperprolactinemia, anomalies of  
mucus, and tubal disease are also important factors in women's  
infertility (10).  
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