Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages: 27-28  
A Short Communication on COVID-19 Outbreak  
Amirreza Talaiekhozani  
Department of Civil Engineering, Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran  
Received: 03/11/2019  
Accepted: 25/12/2019  
Published: 29/12/2019  
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new strain of coronavirus species which has been firstly appeared in Wuhan city, China.  
Thanks the genetic science a rapid diagnostic tests specific for the COVID-19 has been developed that can be used to detect the infected  
people. It is reported that the most common symptoms for infected persons with COVID-19 are lymphopenia and bilateral ground-glass  
opacity or consolidation in chest CT scans. It is found that COVID-19 is able to transmit from human-to-human by fomites, contact, and  
droplets. New reports also demonstrated that COVID-19 is able to transmit to humans during exposure with high concentrations of  
aerosol in air. Therefore, in some special conditions COVID-19 may travel long distances in a turbulent atmosphere and it can infect  
other territories. Washing hands, rapid hospitalization of patients, and avoiding unprotected contact with wild and farm animals are the  
most important recommendations for protection of people from infection with COVID-19.  
Keywords: COVID-19, Coronavirus, Transmission mod, Aerosol  
develop a rapid diagnostic tests specific for the COVID-19 [2].  
Since 23 Jan 2020 many confirmed cases have been  
sequentially reported in several regions in China, such as  
Taiwan, Macau, and Hong Kong [3]. Patients infected to  
COVID-19 are no longer limited to city of Wuhan. Many  
infected patients to the COVID-19 have been diagnosed in  
other countries including Singapore, Vietnam, USA, South  
Korea, Japan, Thailand, Italy, Australia, Malaysia, Philippines,  
Cambodia, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Canada, Germany, France,  
The United Kingdom, Russian Federation, Spain, Belgium,  
Finland, Sweden, Egypt, and Lebanon (see WHO documents to  
find a complete list of infected countries). It has been guessed  
that the COVID-19 can spread around the word by air travel.  
Figure 1 shows the distribution of COVID-19 in the world. As  
can be seen the most infected territory with COVID-19 in the  
world is Chania. Since COVID-19 has been recently detected,  
there is no enough information about it. That is why it is  
necessary to collect all scattered pieces of information about  
COVID-19 in a paper.  
Around December 2019 a new strain of coronavirus species  
was appeared in the city of Wuhan located in Hubei Province,  
China. This new strain was later called “coronavirus disease  
019” (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO).  
Firstly, Chinese health authorities could find several  
pneumonia cases in the city of Wuhan and then they found that  
the cause of this viral pneumonia is a new strain of coronavirus  
species [1]. Although the source of the COVID-19 outbreak  
was firstly unknown, there are reports show that this virus have  
been found in some samples of food in the Huanan Seafood  
Wholesale Market in Wuhan city [1]. More investigations  
showed that many of the most recent cases have not been  
exposed to animal markets; therefore, it was suggested that the  
COVID-19 can transmit from human-to-human.  
These findings showed the potential of international threat  
of the COVID-19. The genetic sequence of the COVID-19 was  
recently investigated. The results of this investigations let us to  
Figure 1: The distribution of COVID-19 cases in the world until 24 Feb 2020 (this figure has been adapted from [4])  
Corresponding author: Amirreza Talaiekhozani, Department of Civil Engineering, Jami Institute of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. E-mail:  
Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages: 27-28  
Therefore, the aim of this study is to collect correct and up  
also should be visited by a medical doctor to be checked for  
COVID-19 infection. If they be infected with COVID-19, they  
should be hospitalized at least for four weeks.  
to date information about Symptoms of human infection by  
COVID-19, transmission modes, and recommended ways to  
reduce the general risk of COVID-19.  
Recommended ways to reduce the general risk  
Symptoms of human infection by COVID-19  
of COVID-19  
Some symptoms of human infection by COVID-19 at the  
There are some way that can be used to reduce the general  
risk of COVID-19 transmission to human: (a) avoiding close  
contact with persons infected with COVID-19; (b) washing  
hands, particularly after direct contact with persons infected  
with COVID-19 or their environment; (c) avoiding close and  
unprotected contact with animals; (d) People who confirm that  
they are infected with COVID-19 or each person with  
symptoms of acute respiratory infection must practice cough  
etiquette such as wash hands, sneezes with disposable tissues  
or clothing, cover coughs, and maintain distance; and (d) the  
enhancement of infection prevention standards within health  
care facilities including hospitals, particularly in departments  
of emergency. Any specific health measures has not been  
recommended by WHO for travelers. If travellers have  
symptoms of respiratory infection, it is recommended that they  
must seek medical attention and share their travel history with  
their health care provider.  
prodromal phase such as malaise, dry cough and fever are not  
specific for COVID-19. It seems that in COVID-19 infection  
symptoms of human upper respiratory system are very  
infrequent. Although intestinal symptoms reported in SARS is  
uncommon in COVID-19 infection, few cases reported by [5]  
had diarrhea. It is reported that the most common symptoms for  
infected persons with COVID-19 are lymphopenia and bilateral  
ground-glass opacity or consolidation in chest CT scans [2].  
These symptoms for early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection  
may be similar with other diseases, especially in cases where  
the patient has other diseases, such as the influenza and other  
respiratory viruses. Based on WHO 77262 infected cases with  
COVID-19 have been detected in China which 2595 have died  
until 26 Jun 2020 [4]. These data show the mortality rate of  
COVID-19 is around 3.35% while mortality rate for Middle  
East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute  
respiratory syndrome (SARS) is 37% and 10%, respectively  
2]. WHO also reported that 79331 people infected to COVID-  
9 has been detected in 29 different countries until 26 Jun 2020.  
COVID-19 is a rapid danger for human being worldwide;  
therefore, it should be controlled as fast as possible. WHO has  
several recommendations including Washing hands, rapid  
hospitalization of patients, and avoiding unprotected contact  
with wild and farm animals to protect people again COVID-19  
infection. The possibility of spreading COVID-19 via aerosols  
in air can increase the danger of this pathogen.  
Transmission modes  
A few information are presented to describe the COVID-  
9, and no pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy yet  
exist. One of the most important acts that must be done in future  
is collecting all information about challenge and concerns that  
will be appeared by COVID-19 to our community. Every effort  
must be given to understand and control the COVID-19, and  
the time to act is now. During outbreaks MERS and SARS,  
virus could transfer from human-to-human through fomites,  
contact, and droplets. Since MERS, SARS, and COVID-19  
viruses are from a same family, it is suggested that the  
transmission mode of the COVID-19 may be similar. COVID-  
1] Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Gioannini C, Litvinova M, Pastore y Piontti  
A, Rossi L, et al. Preliminary assessment of the International  
Spreading Risk Associated with the 2019 novel Coronavirus  
(2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan City. Center for Inference and  
Dynamics of Infectious Diseases, USA Retrieved. 2020;8.  
2] Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus  
9 has a high potential for mutation. But its mutation rate is  
slightly lower than other RNA viruses because of its genome-  
encoded exonuclease; therefore, COVID-19 is able to adapt to  
become more efficiently transmitted from human to human.  
New reports demonstrated that COVID-19 is able to  
transmit to humans during exposure with high concentrations  
of aerosol in air [6]. COVID-19 can be mixed with droplets in  
the air to form aerosols. Aerosols are able to be floated in air  
for a long period of time especially in a turbulent atmosphere.  
Therefore, the virus can travel many miles in air and cause  
infection after inhalation. As a good strategy to prevent  
spreading COVID-19 people with symptoms of respiratory  
infection must stay at home and avoid close contact with other  
people for at least 14 days to decrease the risk of infection with  
other pathogens. People with symptoms of respiratory infection  
3] Commission CNH. Update on the novel coronavirus pneumonia  
outbreak (Jan 24, 2020). Beijing: China National Health  
Commission. 2020.  
[4] WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report –  
35. USA: World Health Organisation (WHO); 2020.  
5] Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A  
familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel  
coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a  
family cluster. The Lancet. 2020.  
6] Xinhuanet. Novel coronavirus can transmit via aerosol: health  
authorities. China: Xinhuanet; 2020.