Journal of Infertility and Reproductive Biology, 2019, Volume 7, Issue 4, Pages: 27-28
Therefore, the aim of this study is to collect correct and up
also should be visited by a medical doctor to be checked for
COVID-19 infection. If they be infected with COVID-19, they
should be hospitalized at least for four weeks.
to date information about Symptoms of human infection by
COVID-19, transmission modes, and recommended ways to
reduce the general risk of COVID-19.
Recommended ways to reduce the general risk
Symptoms of human infection by COVID-19
Some symptoms of human infection by COVID-19 at the
There are some way that can be used to reduce the general
risk of COVID-19 transmission to human: (a) avoiding close
contact with persons infected with COVID-19; (b) washing
hands, particularly after direct contact with persons infected
with COVID-19 or their environment; (c) avoiding close and
unprotected contact with animals; (d) People who confirm that
they are infected with COVID-19 or each person with
symptoms of acute respiratory infection must practice cough
etiquette such as wash hands, sneezes with disposable tissues
or clothing, cover coughs, and maintain distance; and (d) the
enhancement of infection prevention standards within health
care facilities including hospitals, particularly in departments
of emergency. Any specific health measures has not been
recommended by WHO for travelers. If travellers have
symptoms of respiratory infection, it is recommended that they
must seek medical attention and share their travel history with
their health care provider.
prodromal phase such as malaise, dry cough and fever are not
specific for COVID-19. It seems that in COVID-19 infection
symptoms of human upper respiratory system are very
infrequent. Although intestinal symptoms reported in SARS is
uncommon in COVID-19 infection, few cases reported by 
had diarrhea. It is reported that the most common symptoms for
infected persons with COVID-19 are lymphopenia and bilateral
ground-glass opacity or consolidation in chest CT scans .
These symptoms for early diagnosis of COVID-19 infection
may be similar with other diseases, especially in cases where
the patient has other diseases, such as the influenza and other
respiratory viruses. Based on WHO 77262 infected cases with
COVID-19 have been detected in China which 2595 have died
until 26 Jun 2020 . These data show the mortality rate of
COVID-19 is around 3.35% while mortality rate for Middle
East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute
respiratory syndrome (SARS) is 37% and 10%, respectively
2]. WHO also reported that 79331 people infected to COVID-
9 has been detected in 29 different countries until 26 Jun 2020.
COVID-19 is a rapid danger for human being worldwide;
therefore, it should be controlled as fast as possible. WHO has
several recommendations including Washing hands, rapid
hospitalization of patients, and avoiding unprotected contact
with wild and farm animals to protect people again COVID-19
infection. The possibility of spreading COVID-19 via aerosols
in air can increase the danger of this pathogen.
A few information are presented to describe the COVID-
9, and no pharmacological therapies of proven efficacy yet
exist. One of the most important acts that must be done in future
is collecting all information about challenge and concerns that
will be appeared by COVID-19 to our community. Every effort
must be given to understand and control the COVID-19, and
the time to act is now. During outbreaks MERS and SARS,
virus could transfer from human-to-human through fomites,
contact, and droplets. Since MERS, SARS, and COVID-19
viruses are from a same family, it is suggested that the
transmission mode of the COVID-19 may be similar. COVID-
1] Chinazzi M, Davis JT, Gioannini C, Litvinova M, Pastore y Piontti
A, Rossi L, et al. Preliminary assessment of the International
Spreading Risk Associated with the 2019 novel Coronavirus
(2019-nCoV) outbreak in Wuhan City. Center for Inference and
Dynamics of Infectious Diseases, USA Retrieved. 2020;8.
2] Wang C, Horby PW, Hayden FG, Gao GF. A novel coronavirus
9 has a high potential for mutation. But its mutation rate is
slightly lower than other RNA viruses because of its genome-
encoded exonuclease; therefore, COVID-19 is able to adapt to
become more efficiently transmitted from human to human.
New reports demonstrated that COVID-19 is able to
transmit to humans during exposure with high concentrations
of aerosol in air . COVID-19 can be mixed with droplets in
the air to form aerosols. Aerosols are able to be floated in air
for a long period of time especially in a turbulent atmosphere.
Therefore, the virus can travel many miles in air and cause
infection after inhalation. As a good strategy to prevent
spreading COVID-19 people with symptoms of respiratory
infection must stay at home and avoid close contact with other
people for at least 14 days to decrease the risk of infection with
other pathogens. People with symptoms of respiratory infection
3] Commission CNH. Update on the novel coronavirus pneumonia
outbreak (Jan 24, 2020). Beijing: China National Health
 WHO. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Situation Report –
35. USA: World Health Organisation (WHO); 2020.
5] Chan JF-W, Yuan S, Kok K-H, To KK-W, Chu H, Yang J, et al. A
familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel
coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a
family cluster. The Lancet. 2020.
6] Xinhuanet. Novel coronavirus can transmit via aerosol: health
authorities. China: Xinhuanet; 2020.