India, Moderna BioNtech USA and others are in various
stages of vaccine development. It will take at least 18 months
or by late 2021 to establish effectiveness and safety.
Washing of Hand Frequently: Washing your hands
with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub
regularly and thoroughly kills viruses that may be on
your hands (16, 17).
Using existing therapies and repurposing
Maintain social distancing: Maintain at least 1 metre (3
feet) distance between yourself and anyone who is
coughing or sneezing. When someone coughs or sneezes,
they spray small liquid droplets from their nose or mouth
which may contain virus. If you are too close, you can
breathe in the droplets, including the COVID-19 virus if
the person coughing has the disease (16, 17). Avoid
touching eyes, nose and mouth: Hands touch many
surfaces and can pick up viruses. Once contaminated,
hands can transfer the virus to your eyes, nose or mouth.
From there, the virus can enter your body and can make
you sick (16, 17).
drugs to save lives
With no sure shot vaccine/ drug in sight till late 2021,
medical practioners are using existing therapies and
repurposing drugs to save lives.
a. Combination of Hydroxychloroquine and the antibiotic
azithromycin has shown some effectiveness in a very
small French study and reports from China. Chloroquine
act as an effective antiviral drug against SARS-CoV-2
infection at entry and post entry its stage and prevent the
virus cell fusion by interfering with glycosylation of
ACE2 receptor and its binding with spike protein (21,
Practice respiratory hygiene: Make sure you, and the
people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene.
This means covering your mouth and nose with your
bent elbow or tissue when you cough or sneeze. Then
dispose of the used tissue immediately. Droplets spread
virus. By following good respiratory hygiene, you
protect the people around you from viruses such as cold,
flu and COVID-19 (16, 17).
b. Arbidol which is also known as Umifenovir inhibits viral
fusion in the targeted membrane, that blocks the viral
entry and Oseltamivir suppresses the viral neuraminidase
and inhibits the release of viral particle into the targeted
cells (22, 23).
c. India has so far approved the combination of two
antivirals drugs (Lopinavir and ritonavir) that targets
viral protease to treat COVID -19 (20).
d. Convalescent plasma (Antibody therapy) - Giving sick
patients with antibody rich plasma from those who have
recovered is a century old therapy with proven track
e. Clot bursting drugs - tissue plasminogen activator is used
to treat heart attack and stroke patients, may work to treat
Covid-19. Clinical trials will take few months before
safety is ensured.
Seek medical care early: Stay home if you feel unwell.
If you have a fever, cough and difficulty breathing, seek
medical attention and call in advance (16).
Cloth face covering: Wear cloth face covering in the
public setting where the social distance cannot be opted.
It is additionally advised to use cloth mask rather than
N95 mask to avoid spreading of the virus and help
people who may have the virus and do not know it from
transmitting it to others (18).
f. Ayurvedic medicines and herbal drugs are also used
along with the therapeutic drug for boosting the
immunity. Specific prophylaxis includes Sanjeevani bati,
chitrakadi, combination of Guduchi, (Tinospora
cordifolia) Shunthi (Zingiber ofﬁcinale) and Haridra
Disinfecting surfaces: Proper cleaning of frequently
touched surfaces such as door, cabinet, etc. has to be
performed using household detergent and water because
COVID-19 virus survives on surfaces for many hours
(Curcuma longa Linn.). Sanjeevani bati act against cold
cough and communicable diseases and also strengthens
and rejuvenates the immune system. Other herbs such,
Ocimum sanctum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Adhatoda vasica,
Andrographis paniculata, Swertiachirata, Moringa
oleifera, Triphala and Trikatu has antiviral properties and
inhibits the viral protease (24).
Apart from the aforementioned steps, there are several
other steps, which can be opt by individual as a prevention
such as resting and avoiding overexertion, drinking sufficient
amount of water, avoiding smoking and smoky areas, etc. (1).
Current development strategies on treatment
of COVID 19
Currently, there is no clinically approved drug or vaccines are
available which show effectiveness against COVID-19. Many
trials are on process for drug development in worldwide. The
supportive treatments are under trial to relive discomfort
during illness. In February Hydroxychloroquine was found to
effectively reduce COVID-19 illness. Preliminary results from
a trial indicated that chloroquine is effective and safe in
COVID-19 pneumonia, "improving lung imaging findings,
promoting a virus-negative conversion, and shortening the
disease course but it has numerous, potentially serious, side
effects. High doses of hydroxychloroquine are proving to be
lethal (20). Remdesevir, adenosine nucleotide analog act as a
viral RNA- dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor that inhibits
RNA synthesis in coronavirus and act as an antiviral agent
The sudden outbreak of the infectious disease COVID-19
is a threat to each and every individual globally. The
remarkable point of this infection is its spreading rate among
the communities. Scientific communities are working on the
development of drugs and vaccines to eradicate the disease
from the root level. During the period of this pandemic, it is
necessary to opt the precautionary measures and avoid the
spreading among the community. It is also important not to
believe the rumors about the pandemic and depend on the
reliable and authentic information. Immunity plays an
important role in this disease, so it important have nutritious
and healthy food to boost the immunity as per ministry of
AYUSH, Govt. of India.
21). Recombinant human monoclonal antibody can bind with
receptor binding site and can be effective against COVID 19
infection. Vaccine development with a live-attenuated virus,
viral vectors, inactivated virus, subunit vaccines, recombinant
DNA, and proteins vaccine is another mode of strategy which
can reduce the severity of outbreak (8). Serum Institute if
We would like to convey our thanks to Shri Mohan Ji
Saxena, Managing Trustee for his valuable guidance and