J Infertil Reprod Biol, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages: 38-42. https://doi.org/10.47277/JIRB/8(3)/38  
Pedigree Analysis: An Important Diagnostic Tool  
for Calculating the Risk Factor in Infertile Men of  
Indian Population  
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Gresh Chander , Susan Manohar , Alibha Rawat , N. Ganesh  
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Department of Research Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Idgah Hills Bhopal (India)  
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Govt Mahatma Gandhi Memorial College Itarsi M.P (India)  
Received: 18/06/2020  
Accepted: 03/07/2020  
Published: 20/09/2020  
Abstract  
The problem of male infertility is widespread in the modern world and it is of utmost importance to look for risk factors and its  
early diagnosis so that corrective measures can be taken early on. The pedigree chart analysis is a very important tool in this regard  
which gives us the pictorial representation of the disease within the family. The research work was conducted in the Department of  
Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital, and Research Center. Three-generation medical history of healthy control and infertile  
subjects were taken by preparing a pedigree chart in the form of pictorial representation. Physical examination was done for the  
Anthropometrical studies and other sexual inconvenience of the enrolled subjects. In the subjects enrolled for study the prevalence  
of infertility was found to be significantly high in families having a history of infertility and other habits in their generation line.  
Keywords: Anogenital distance, Abortions, Infertility, Pedigree, Sperm Morphology  
Introduction1  
Male infertility is on the rise around the globe, consequently,  
numbers of infertile couples in India have an equally great  
concern (7).  
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it is getting more consideration in numerous studies to improve  
its treatment management (1). In the reproductive age, 10 to 2 Objectives  
5% of couples face the problem of infertility (2). Pedigree  
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The main objective of the current research work is to trace  
family history by preparing a pedigree chart of male individuals  
with infertility and to establish pedigree analysis as an important  
tool for identifying the causes and risk factors of male infertility  
in Indian males.  
analysis is the presentation of the family history as well as  
medical and genetic associations in a graphic form. For centuries  
it has been an essential means in medical genetics practices (3,4).  
For the health professionals in routine medical practices, the  
pedigree interpretations should be an essential tool in calculating  
the risk of infertility in a family. Infertility is a worldwide  
problem nowadays and has been increasing since the last decade  
or two due to changing lifestyles and environmental conditions.  
According to the world health organization (5), infertility has  
been defined as the inability to conceive after one year of  
unprotected intercourse. At present, infertility is a serious  
concern in developing countries. Infertility is affecting 13-15%  
of couples worldwide and becoming a common clinical problem  
day by day. In a study done by Polis et al., (6), infertility  
prevalence was studied by the Current Duration (CD) (i.e.  
current length of time-at-risk of pregnancy) approach in  
developing countries and according to their study, the estimated  
percentage of infertile couples was 31.1% (95% CI: 27.9–  
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Material and methods  
The present experimental work was conducted in the  
Department of Research, Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and  
Research Center (JNCH&RC), Idgaha Hills, Bhopal from the  
year 2013 to 2017. It was a cross-sectional study and the subjects  
were enrolled from OPD, referred cases from different IVF  
centers of Bhopal, and volunteers from different sections of  
society (healthy as well as subjects not facing the problem of  
infertility) of age groups 18-45 years. The study was approved  
by institutional ethical approval (IEC 546/16.03.16).  
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.1 Pedigree Chart Construction  
Pedigree analysis was done by collecting the family history  
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4.7%). Globally infertility affects more than twenty million  
by simply asking the patient if any family members have the  
same illness or not. The pictorial representation of diseases was  
calculated in which three generations have been studied. The  
pedigree chart of the three-generation provides a pictographic  
representation of any kind of disease within a family and is also  
helpful to calculate the risk factor in the family if any. It is the  
most professional way to assess hereditary influences on  
disease. (a) In this study, the questionnaire approach was used  
for the collection of family information and construct a pedigree  
men and represents a major health concern. Generally, it has not  
been studied that males with multifactorial problems have a  
strong genetic basis. The present growth of the Indian population  
is on the rise of extraordinarily. It stands, currently, at over one  
billion and is expected to touch 2 billion by 2035 assuming an  
average growth rate of 2%. Even though increasing population  
growth is a major concern of the nation, in the meantime large  
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Corresponding author: N. Ganesh, Department of Research Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Centre Idgah Hills  
Bhopal (India). E-mail: nganeshresearch@gmail.com  
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