J Infertil Reprod Biol, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages: 66-67. https://doi.org/10.47277/JIRB/8(4)/66  
Environmental Pollution: a Risk Factor for  
Female Fertility-A Letter to Editor  
Azam Soleimani  
Kazerun Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, Iran  
Received: 12/09/2020  
Accepted: 4/10/2020  
Published: 20/12/2020  
Abstract  
Experimental data indicate that exposure to environmental pollution can lead to serious complications on the female  
reproductive system. Environmental pollution appears to affect reproductive success and outcomes by endocrine disruption  
and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress. The aim of this letter to editor is to elucidate the impact of  
exposures to environmental pollutants on female reproductive health and outcomes. There is a need to increase the awareness  
among women to avoid exposure to the reproductive risk factors.  
Keywords: Environmental pollution, Female, Fertility  
Significant evidences exist to support environmental  
pollution exposure as a risk factor for fertility (1-3). These  
studies mostly focused on certain toxicants, heavy metals  
disorders such as early spontaneous abortion, embryonic  
mortality, premature delivery and low birthweight are  
considered to related to imbalance between ROS  
production and antioxidant ROS detoxification pathways  
(2, 18, 19). Maternal exposure to heavy metals including  
cadmium (Cd) has been shown to be associated with  
preeclampsia (20). Others found association of early  
delivery and low birthweight with maternal cadmium  
exposure (2, 21, 22). There are reports on maternal  
exposure to lead and adverse pregnancy outcomes  
including delay in growth and pubertal development (23).  
Some evidences have been shown that exposure to heavy  
metal can induce the excessive production of ROS,  
oxidative stress and developmental toxicity (2, 14).  
Epidemiological studies have documented close  
association between working women and higher risk of  
undesirable reproductive outcome. As preventing the  
discharge of environmental pollutants is an important  
factor, it would seem to be crucial to increase awareness  
of risk factors among the population to efficiently reduce  
environmental pollutants.  
(
arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury), pesticides such as  
bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane and organic  
solvent such as benzene, toluene and ionizing radiation  
(
4). There are also evidences that exposure to indoor air  
pollution could play a role in the pathogenesis of female  
infertility (5, 6). The most relevant air pollutants are in  
four main categories: organic compounds, gaseous  
pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrate oxide (NO2) and  
carbon monoxide (CO)), heavy metals and particulate  
matter (PM10 PM2.5-10and PM2.5) (5, 7). Environmental  
pollution has been suggested to be acted on one or more  
organs through different and/or similar mechanisms of  
action. Although the specific mechanism is unclear,  
observed evidences have shown that exposure to  
environmental pollution induces endocrine disruption and  
may lead to disrupt the dynamic hormone-dependent  
signaling pathways in differentiating tissues (8).  
Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are able to  
mimic hormones and can cause reproductive problems  
such as miscarriages, impaired fertility, endometriosis,  
irregularities of the menstrual cycle, intrauterine growth  
restriction, polycystic ovarian syndrome and infertility (9,  
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Corresponding author: Azam Soleimani, Kazerun Medical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kazerun, Iran.  
E-mail: soleimaniaz@yahoo.com  
66  
J Infertil Reprod Biol, 2020, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages: 66-67. https://doi.org/10.47277/JIRB/8(4)/66  
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